NCERT Solutions Geography Class 12 Chapter 5 Primary Activities offers you best answers for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part A Fundamentals of Human Geography Chapter 5 Primary Activities. This chapter designed by expert’s subject teachers to prepare students to score well. Here you find question wise complete detailed chapter questions and answers

Q1.Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i)Which one of the following is not a plantation crop?


Answer:- (c)Wheat

(ii)In which one of the following countries co-operative farming was the most successful experiment?

(d)The Netherlands

Answer:- (b)Denmark

(iii)Growing of flowers is called:

(a) Truck farming
(c)Mixed farming
(b) Factory farming

Answer:- (d)Floriculture

(iv)Which one of the following types of cultivation was developed by European colonists?

(c)Mixed farming

Answer:- (d)Plantation

(v)In which one of the following regions is extensive commercial grain cultivation not practiced?

(a)American Canadian prairies
(c)Pampas of Argentina
(b)European Steppes
(d)Amazon Basin

Answer:-(d)Amazon Basin

(vi)In which of the following types of agriculture is the farming of citrus fruit very important?

(a)Market gardening
(c)Mediterranean agriculture
(b)Plantation agriculture
(d)Co-operative farming

Answer:- (c)Mediterranean agriculture

(vii)Which one type of agriculture amongst the following is also called ‘slash andburn agriculture’?

(a)Extensive subsistence agriculture
(b)Primitive subsistence agriculture
(c)Extensive commercial grain cultivation
(d)Mixed farming

Answer:- (b)Primitive subsistence agriculture

(viii)Which one of the following does not follow monoculture?

(a)Dairy farming
(b)Mixed farming
(c)Plantation agriculture
(d)Commercial grain farming

Answer:-(b)Mixed farming

Q2.Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(a)Future of shifting cultivation is bleak Discuss.

Answer:- Shifting cultivation is also called as slash and burn agriculture. After sometime (3 to 5 years) the soil loses its fertility and the farmer shifts to another parts and clears another patch of the forest for cultivation. The biggest issue with Jhum cultivation is that the cycle of Jhum starts declining as the soil of
that region start losing its fertility in different parcels. Since, this form of cultivation is practised is
forest areas, therefore the Govt of India imposed several restrictions in such areas in order to
save the forests.

(b) Market gardening is practised near urban areas. Why?

Answer:- Market gardening is specialised in the cultivation of high value crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers, solely for the urban markets. It is practised near urban areas because farms are small and are
located where there are good transportation links with the urban centre where high income group of consumers is located.

(c) Large scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration.

Answer:- Dairy products have a small shelf life and are perishable in nature. To supply them to overseas and distant market, it is essential to have adequate storage facilities with required temperature. Since, storage, transportation and preservation facilities have developed, dairy products are now transported to overseas as well.

Q3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

(a) Differentiate between Nomadic Herding and Commercial Livestock Rearing.

Nomadic Herding

  1. Here, herders move from one place to another with their animals and completely rely on them for food, clothes, transportation.
  2. Primitive subsistence activity.
  3. Depending on region, multiple animals are kept.
  4. Very small or no capital involved.
  5. No support from modern technology.
  6. Associated with nomadic tribes mostly.

Commercial Livestock Herding

  1. It is modern practise of animal rearing to export animal products.
  2. Modern and scientific activity which is market-oriented
  3. Single type of animals are kept
  4. High capital involved which is spent on breeding, caring and feeding of animals.
  5. Highly mechanized sector
  6. Associated with countries that are highly developed.

(NB: You may make table)

(b) Discuss the important characteristic features of plantation agriculture. Name a few important plantation crops from different countries.

Answer:- Europeans had introduced Plantation agriculture in those colonies which were situated near
the tropics. Its features are:
● It is large scale production system which is profit oriented.
● One needs capital investment in huge amount.
● It is market oriented completely.
● Cheap and large skilled labour supply
● It provides a link between agriculture and industry.

● Well developed transportation facilities are required so that raw materials could be easily
provides. Few of the important plantation crops made popular by Europeans are:
● The British established large tea gardens in countries such as Sri Lanka and India. In
West Indies, they established Sugarcane and banana plantations apart from establishing
rubber plantation in Malaysia. They still manage coffee plantations in Brazil.
● French popularized cocoa and coffee plantation in several countries of West Africa.
● America and Spanish invested heavily in sugarcane and banana plantations in the Philippines.
● Dutch were instrumental in starting banana plantation in Indonesia. Europeans.

Extra Questions Chapter 5 Primary Activities

Q1. Which was the first activity carried out by human beings?

Answer:- Hunting and gathering are then oldest activities carried out by human beings.

Q2. Who are the red collar workers?

Answer:- People engaged in primary activities are called red collar workers due to the oudoor nature of their work.

Q3. Define nomadic herding or pastoral nomadism.

Answer:- It is a primitive subsistence activity in which the herders rely on their animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport. They move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending upon the amount and quality of water and pasture.

Q4. Commercial livestock rearing is a specialized activity. Substantiate.

Answer:- Commercial livestock rearing is a specialized activity because under this only one type of animal is reared. Important animals include sheep, cattle, goats and horses. The products obtained by these animals like meat, skin and wool, hides are processed and packed scientifically to be exported to world markets.

Q5. Which regions are associated with pastoral nomadism?

Answer:-Pastoral nomadism is associated with three important regions. The core region extends from the Atlantic shores of North Africa eastwards across the Arabian peninsula into Mongolia and Central China. The second region extends over the tundra region of Eurasia. In the southern hemisphere there are small areas in South-west Africa and on the island of Madagascar.

Q6. What is the status of mining in the developed and developing economies of the world?

Answer:- Mining is primarily extraction of minerals from surface or beneath the surface of the earth’s crust for further processing in industrial and other uses. It involves more of manual labour and is hazardous, so the developed economies are retreating from mining, processing and refining stages of production due to high labour costs, while the developing countries with large labor force and striving for higher standard of living are becoming more important. Several countries of Africa and few of south America and Asia have over fifty per cent of the earnings from minerals alone.

Q7. What is the importance of ‘dairy farming? Why is it mainly practiced near urban and industrial centers of the world? Explain any two reasons.

Answer:- Dairy farming is capital intensive. It is the most developed form of keeping mulch animals. It provides milk, butter, cheese, etc. It is practiced near the markets – urban areas and industrial centers because there is demand for fresh milk and dairy product. The development in refrigeration, pasteurization and other processes has helped in it’s development.

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