Q1. Interest groups are part and parcel of a functioning democracy. Discuss.
Answer:- Pressure groups or interest groups are organised and unorganised groups which try to influence governmental policies. They try to protect the interests of their members at different levels. They are the part and parcel of a functioning democracy in the following ways:
These interest groups start campaigning on any particular issue so that public support can be gained. They take the help of mass media so that the public could pay more attention to them.
They generally call for a strike, march or protest and try to disrupt the governmental programmes. They often call for strikes and dharnas to raise their voice.
Generally, business groups form a lobby of the people with common objectives. so that the government could be pressurised to change its policies.
These groups publish newspapers and control them to propagate about their interests among masses.
Q2. Read the Snippets from the debates held in the Constituent Assembly. Identify the interest groups. Discuss what kind of interest groups exist in contemporary India. How do they function?
Answer:- After studying the snippets from the debates held in the Constituent Assembly, we can say that many types of economic, political, social, religious, business interest groups exist in India. All these interest groups work for the fulfillment of interests of the citizens. To achieve their objectives, they pressurise the government in one way or the other. Trade Union, Farmers Organisations are some of its examples.
Q3. Create a ‘phad’ or a scroll with your own mandate when standing for school election. (This could be done in small groups of 5, like a panchayat.)
Answer:- Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.
Q4. Have you heard of Bal Panchayats and Mazdoor Kisan Sangathan? If not, find out and write a note about them in about 200 words.
Answer:- Yes, we have heard about Bal Panchayats and Mazdoor Kisan Sangathan and their description is given ahead:
(i) Bal Panchayat. They were the representatives of different classes elected as Panchs and one representative, i.e., the Head was elected as Sarpanch. They were assigned the work of finding problems of the school so that they could be discussed in their monthly meeting with the Principal Sir and other teachers.
During the morning assembly all the students were asked to share their problems, if any, with their respective representatives. After a very short span of time, the Principal became aware of the problems of the students through the representatives, i.e., the Bal Panchayat. Their problems were discussed in the meeting and suggestions were given. In this way, Bal Panchayat did a very commendable job in removing the problems of the students.
(ii) Kisan Sangathan. Our country is basically an agricultural country where around 70% of the total population is engaged directly or indirectly with agriculture related occupations. In this type of agricultural country, Kisan Sangathans are necessary which work for the benefits of farmers.
Their position is very strong in agriculture dominated states like, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, etc. They even influence the polity of their respective states. These Sangathans bring but the problems of farmers in front of the government and pressurise the government to solve the problems of the farmers. In this way these Kisan Sangathans act as pressure groups or interest groups.
Q5. The 73rd Amendment has been monumental in bringing a voice to the people in the villages. Discuss. ‘ (C.B.S.E 2017 (D)
Answer:- In 1992, decentralised governance came into force by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment. Panchayati Raj institutions were given the Constitutional status through this Act. It became necessary for local self bodies of rural and urban areas to hold elections after every five years. Moreover, local self bodies were given the control of local resources. Its main features are:
(i) First of all, Gram Sabha was established at village level with all the adults of the village as its members. This Sabha elects the local government and gives it the definite responsibilities. Gram Sabha discusses the developmental works of village and becomes a participant in the decision-making process.
(ii) This amendment provides a three tier structure of Panchayati Raj for all states with a population of over 20 Lakhs.
(iii) It becomes necessary to conduct election after every five years of these bodies.
(iv) It provides 33% reservation of seats to women and some seats for S.C.’s and S.T.’s in these bodies.
(v) It constitutes District Planning Committee to prepare drafts and develop plans for the district as a whole. It is correct that this Act became monumental in bringing a voice to the people in the villages as all the sections of the society are given proper representation in these bodies. All the sections of the society have become a part of the decision-making process and it is one of the major feature of the successful functioning of democracy.
Q6. Write an essay on the ways that the Indian Constitution touches people’s everyday life, drawing upon different examples.
(i) The Indian Constitution gave the right of equality to all of its citizens that every one is equal before law. No discrimination shall take place with any one on the basis of his race, colour, caste, creed, etc. It has brought the status of lower castes equal to the status of higher castes.
(ii) The Indian Constitution has given certain fundamental rights which every one enjoys and which are necessary to live a better life. These are given to all irrespective of their castes or creed. In this way people of lower castes can live a better life than before and this is because of our Constitution.
(iii) Our Constitution has made our country a democratic country. It means that there is no place for autocratic rule and people enjoy the top most authority by electing their ruler. So the power rests in the hands of people and touches the everyday life of the people.
(iv) India is a country where a number of religions exist. It was very much necessary to avert any religious clashes among them. That is why Indian Constitution has made our country a secular country which means that the state does not have any religion. It means that equal status is given to all the religions.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology: Indian Society
- Chapter 1 Introducing Indian Society
- Chapter 2 The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
- Chapter 3 Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
- Chapter 4 The Market as a Social Institution
- Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
- Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology: Social Change and Development in India
- Chapter 1 Structural Change
- Chapter 2 Cultural Change
- Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy
- Chapter 4 Change and Development in Rural Society
- Chapter 5 Change and Development in Industrial Society
- Chapter 6 Globalisation and Social Change
- Chapter 7 Mass Media and Communications
- Chapter 8 Social Movements