NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 13 Mass Media and Communications

Q1. Trace out the changes that have been occurring in the newspaper industry. What is your opinion on these changes?

Answer:- Newspaper and magazines played a great role in the spread of the freedom movement. It was generally believed that the print media would be sidelined with the growth of television and the internet. But the circulation of newspapers grew rapidly in India. Production and circulation of newspapers has been boosted by the advent of new technologies. Many glossy magazines have also entered the market.

A number of reasons are present for the amazing growth in Indian language newspapers as well. First of all, there is a rise in the number of literate people who migrate to urban areas. The Hindi daily ‘Hindustan’ in 2003 printed 64,000 copies of the Delhi edition. It jumped to 425,000 copies by 2005. It is so because out of 147 Lakh population of Delhi, 52% came from the Hindi Belt of two states of U.P. and Bihar. Out of these, 47% have a rural background and 60% belong to the age group of 40 years or less.

Second reason is that the needs of readers of smaller areas i.e., rural areas are different from urban areas and Indian language newspapers fulfill those needs. Major dominant Indian language newspapers like ‘Malayala Manorama’ and the ‘Eenadu’ launched the concept of local news in a different way by introducing district and whenever necessary block editions.

Another leading newspaper ‘Dina Thanthi’ always used simple and colloquail language. Indian newspapers have adopted modern printing technology and also published pullouts, supplements, literary and niche booklets. The Dainik Bhaskar group grew because of marketing strategies as they carry out door to door surveys, research and consumer contact programmes.

English newspapers are generally known as ‘national dailies’ and are circulated across the regions. Indian language newspapers have greatly increased their circulation in rural areas. Newspapers, especially English and Hindi, have not only reduced their prices but they have brought out editions from multiple centres as well.

Q2. Is radio as a medium of mass communication dying out? Discuss the potential that FM stations have in post-liberalisation India. (C.B.S.E. 2013)

Answer:- The first radio broadcast in India started in 1925 when Radio Club of Bombay broadcasted its first programme. From then till today, Radio is an important means of entertainment for the rich and the poor. Radio, after newspapers, is the only means which is within the reach of common man. Even poor people can entertain himself by spending Rs. 100-150 on a Radio set.

Yet the advent of hundreds of television channels has reduced the impact of radio but this craze of radio has again increased with the opening up of F.M. Stations. Radio can reach those far off places and interiors of country where no other means of entertainment can reach.

The potential of F.M. stations has greatly increased in the modern age of globalisation. Radio stations are developing due to privatisation of radio stations and with the advent of community based radio stations. People like to listen to the local news. A number of F.M. channels are constantly increasing in the country, because they broadcast many new programmes and invites people to participate in their programmes. In this way, F.M. radio channels are becoming famous in the country. F.M. radio station have opened its branches across the country.

Q3. Trace the changes that have been happening in the medium of television. Discuss.


Describe the changes that have been happening in the medium of television. (C.B.S.E. 2011)

Answer:- Doordarshan (Television): First television in India was started in ‘Aakashvani Bhavan’ in 1959 as an experiment. Service of Doordarshan, which is being provided by the Indian government, is one of the largest service of mass media in the world. In its earlier phase, it was being broadcast thrice a week. But later on, it started to broadcast its programmes daily. First satellite experiment in India was carried out in 1975-76.

It was the first step to give social education with the help of technology. The second television centre, in the country opened in 1972. Many other centres started in 1973 in the country. In 1976, Doordarshan was separated from AIR and was made a new department. Colour television was started in 1982 dining the Asian Games at Delhi. D.D. Metro was combined with Delhi Doordarshan in 1984. Initially D.D. Metro was broadcast in Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras but later on the telecast spread to the whole country. D.D. sports, a sports channel was started in 1999 to telecast different sporting events on television.

Now television is available with more than 100 crore people in the country. 87% population is within the reach of television and television covers 78% area of the country. Doordarshan has production studios in 49 cities of the country. Doordarshan telecasts many educational and entertainment programmes. Doordarshan runs many educational programmes with the help of U.G.C. and IGNOU.

Except these hundreds of private channels broadcast their programmes to entertain the masses. Sony, Zee, Starplus, Max, ESPN, Star, Ten Sports and many news channels telecast their programmes round the clock and are entertaining the people. So we can say that electronic mass media has been improved to a great deal in the country. Not only Doordarshan but hundreds of private channels are there with which people are being entertained to a great deal.

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