NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 11 Change and Development in Industrial Society

Q1. Choose any occupation you see around you and describe it along the following lines:

(a) Social composition of the work force – caste, gender, age region
(b) Labour process – how the work takes place
(c) wages and other benefits
(d) working conditions – safety, rest times, working hours etc.

Answer:- Occupation Selected – Teaching.

(a) Social Composition of the work force. People of all the castes and both sexes work in the school in which I teach. Males and females both work with each other and no caste discrimination takes place. Old people and young ones both work with each other. Experinced teachers guide the young teachers so that they could teach in a proper way and improve their teaching skills.

(b) Labour process. All the teachers come, to school early in the morning. All the teachers know about their classes, time-table etc. Every one takes his/her class according to their period and time. School also runs busses to bring students and teachers from far off places. Teachers are given pay according to their experience and ability.

(c) Wages and other benefits. All the teachers are given pay according to their experience and ability. Some are given PGT (Post Graduate Teacher) scale, some TGT (Trained Graduate Teacher) scale and some are given PRT (Primary Teacher) scale. They have the facility of bus service free of cost. With this G.P.F. facility is also given to them. Facility of L.T.C. (Leave Travel Concession) is also there.

(d) Working Conditions. Teachers have to spend 7 hours a day in the school. They are also given free time for rest in between periods so that they do not get exhausted.

Q2. In the account of brickmaking, bidi rolling, software engineers or mines that are described in the boxes, describe the social composition of the workers. What are the working conditions and facilities available? How do girls like Madhu feel about their work?

Answer:- Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

Q3. How has liberalisation affected employment patterns in India?

Answer:- The policy of liberalisation has been followed by Indian government since 1990. Foreign companies were encouraged to invest in India.. The pobcy of bberalisation has affected employment patterns in India in following ways:

(i) Now foreign products are easily available in the country. Due to this many labourers have lost their jobs.

(ii) Multinational companies like Coke, Pepsi, etc. entered Indian market. It is right that these companies have created a number of employment opportunities but it has affected Indian market. No Indian company could stand in their competition. A number of people got jobs but a number of people also lost their jobs.

(iii) Foreign companies and large business houses of India have entered the retail sector. They also provided jobs to the people but small traders, shopkeepers, hawkers, etc. lost their jobs as their small business are adversely affected by their large showrooms.

(iv) Government has followed the policy of disinvestment in which public sector companies are now sold to private companies. Private owners try to cut the cost by scritinising a number of employees with which many people loose their jobs. Some choose to take voluntary retirement. The remaining are forced to do more work.

(v) Due to multinational companies, outsourcing of work takes place and house hold works remains no more in the fray.

(vi) Due to disinvestment and liberlisation, government does not offer more permanent jobs to anyone instead it keeps workers on contract basis. People become insecure with this. In this way bberalisation has attacked employment patterns in India.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology: Indian Society

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology: Social Change and Development in India

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