NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Change and Development in Rural Society

Q1. Read the passage given and answer the questions:

The harsh working conditions suffered by labourers in Aghanbigha were an outcome of the combined effect of the economic power of the maliks as a class and their overwhelming power as members of a dominant caste. A significant aspect of the social power of the maliks was their ability to secure the intervention of various arms of the state to advance their interests. Thus, political factors decisively contributed to widening the gulf between the dominant class and the underclass.

(i) Why do you think the maliks were able to use the power of the state to advance their own interests?
(ii) Why did labourers have harsh working conditions ?


(i) Maliks were in a position to use power of the state to advance their own interests because the important factors of their social power is that they had the capacity to force the different parts of government to interfere in favour of their interests.

(ii) Labourers have harsh working conditions because Maliks have the economic power and they are related with dominant caste. That is why they were exploiting the labourers and labourers had no option but to accept this.

Q2. What measures do you think the government has taken or should take, to protect the rights of landless agricultural labourers and migrate workers?

Answer:- Before Independence the condition of landless agricultural labourers and migrate workers was very pitiful. That is why government, after Independence, took certain steps to improve their status and to protect their interests. Government initiated certain land reform programmes which are given ahead:

  • Those landless labourers who tilled any land, were given proprietorship of that land and were made owners of that land.
  • Zamindari system was abolished and surplus land of zamindars was taken away by government. That surplus land was then distributed among landless labourers.
  • Intermediaries were removed from agrarian society.
  • Land was consolidated and the ceiling of cultivated land was fixed.
  • Land related records were updated and were kept and maintained in a proper way.

In this way government took some measures for the security of interests of landless agricultural labourers and migrated labourers.

Q3. There are direct linkages between situation of agricultural workers and their lack of upward socio-economic mobility. Name some of them.

Answer:- Poverty, unemployment, indebtedness, migration, non-availability of land, lack of knowledge of government policies, lack of knowledge of new technology, etc. are some of the factors which are some of the obstacles in the upward socio-economic mobility of agricultural workers.

Q4. What are the different factors that have enabled certain groups to transform themselves into new wealthy, entrepreneurial, dominant classes? Can you think of an example of this transformation in your state?

Answer:- Green Revolution came in the decade of 1960 which had its own consequences. Not only production of grains increased due to Green Revolution but it also brought certain changes. Economic inequality in rural Indian society was increased due to Green Revolution.

New machines, new technology, new seeds, fertilizers, means of irrigation, pesticides etc. came in front due to Green Revolution but they were out of reach of small and marginal farmers. Rich farmers bought all these things but small and marginal farmers were unable to do so. That is why economic inequality increased between rich farmers and marginal farmers.

Rich farmers came to know about earning more profit by using developed technology and that is why also economic inequality in rural areas increased. That’s why conflict started in rural areas. New arrangement of agriculture came into being due to this dissatisfaction. Poor farmers, landless agricultural labourers were unable to take advantage of Green Revolution.

It is true that grain production in the country increased to a great extent but this production was not the same in all the areas of country. It increased to a great extent in states like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, etc. but other parts of the country were very less affected by this revolution. That is why economic inequality also increased among different states. One class of capitalist farmers also came into being in urban areas, who invested money in agricultural field to earn more profit.

Q5. Hindi and regional language films were often set in rural areas. Think of a film set in rural India and describe the agrarian society and culture that is shown in it. How do you think the portrayal is? Have you seen any recent film set in rural areas? If not how would you explain it?

Answer:- Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

Q6. Visit a construction site in your neighbourhood, a brickyard or other such place where you are likely to find migrate workers. Find out where the workers come from. How are they recruited from their home villages, who is the ‘mukadam’? If they are from rural areas, find out about their lives in their villages and why they have to migrate to find work.

Answer:- Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

Q7. Visit your local fruit-seller and ask her/him about the fruits she/he sells, where they come from and their prices. Find out what has happened to the prices of local products after fruits began to be imported from outside of India (such as apples from Australia). Are there are any imported fruits that are cheaper than Indian fruits?

Answer:- Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

Q8. Collect information and write a report on the environmental situation in rural India. Examples of topics: pesticides; declining water table; impact of para farming coastal areas; salinisation of soil and water logging in canal irrigated areas; loss of biodiversity. Possible source: State of India’s Environment Reports: Reports from Centre for science and Development Down to Earth.

Answer:- Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology: Indian Society

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology: Social Change and Development in India

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